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Software Testing Methods

Black-Box testing

Black-box testing is a method of software testing that examines the functionality of an application based on the specifications. It is also known as Specifications based testing. Independent Testing Team usually performs this type of testing during the software testing life cycle.

This method of test can be applied to each and every level of software testing such as unit, integration, system and acceptance testing. The tester is oblivious to the system architecture and does not have access to the source code. Typically, when performing a black box test, a tester will interact with the system’s user interface by providing inputs and examining outputs without knowing how and where the inputs are worked upon.

Black-Box testing

White-Box testing

White box testing is a testing technique, that examines the program structure and derives test data from the program logic/code. The other names of glass box testing are clear box testing, open box testing, logic driven testing or path driven testing or structural testing.

White box testing is the detailed investigation of internal logic and structure of the code. White box testing is also called glass testing or open box testing. In order to perform white box testing on an application, the tester needs to possess knowledge of the internal working of the code.

The tester needs to have a look inside the source code and find out which unit/chunk of the code is behaving inappropriately.

White-Box testing

Grey-Box testing

Grey Box testing is testing technique performed with limited information about the internal functionality of the system. Grey Box testers have access to the detailed design documents along with information about requirements.

Grey Box tests are generated based on the state-based models, UML Diagrams or architecture diagrams of the target system.  In software testing, the term the more you know the better carries a lot of weight when testing an application.

Mastering the domain of a system always gives the tester an edge over someone with limited domain knowledge. Unlike black box testing, where the tester only tests the application’s user interface, in grey box testing, the tester has access to design documents and the database. Having this knowledge, the tester is able to better prepare test data and test scenarios when making the test plan.

Grey-Box testing

Black-Box testing vs Grey-Box testing vs White-Box testing

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Source: 1 2 3 4

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For study, Knowledge and Information, Technology

Software Testing

Testing is the process of evaluating a system or its component(s) with the intent to find that whether it satisfies the specified requirements or not. Testing is executing a system in order to identify any gaps, errors or missing requirements in contrary to the actual desire or requirements.

Software testing is the process of evaluation a software item to detect differences between given input and expected output. Also to assess the feature of A software item. Testing assesses the quality of the product. Software testing is a process that should be done during the development process. In other words software testing is a verification and validation process.

In the software testing, there are two basic of testing or testing methods.

  1. Black-Box testing
  2. White-Box testing

Black box testing is often used for validation and white box testing is often used for verification.

Black box testing is a testing technique that ignores the internal mechanism of the system and focuses on the output generated against any input and execution of the system. It is also called functional testing.

White box testing is a testing technique that takes into account the internal mechanism of a system. It is also called structural testing and glass box testing.

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Implementing IPv6 using RIPng

RIPng is designed to allow routers to exchange information to compute routes in IPv6-enabled network. RIPng relies on certain information about each of the networks, mainly the metric. RIPng metric is a value between 1 and 15, inclusive. The maximum path limit is 15, after which the network is considered unreachable. RIPng supports multiple IPv6 addresses on each interface.

RIPng is similar to RIPv2, the biggest difference is the RIPv2 uses IPv4 while  RIPng uses IPv6. The routing command is also different between RIPv2 and RIPng.

RIPv2 ConfigurationPicture 1. RIPv2 Configuration

The image above is a routing RIPv2 configuration using IPv4. Using command “router rip” and then input the network address, we create a RIPv2 configuration.

There are clear differences between RIPng configuration and RIPv2 configuration. Despite from the uses of IP address version, there also a differences in their configuration command.

RIPng Configuration (Route)Picture 2. RIPng configuration

As we can see, in RIPng configuration we don’t need to use “router rip” and then “version x”. We just have to enter the “process name” in each interface to enable the RIPng routing. In IPv6 there’s 3 addressing modes; Unicast, Multicast, and Anycast. In this section we use Unicast.

In unicast mode of addressing, an IPv6 interface (host) is uniquely identified in a network segment. The IPv6 packet contains both source and destination IP addresses. A host interface is equipped with an IP address which is unique in that network segment. A network switch or router when receives a unicast IP packet, destined to single host, sends out to one of its outgoing interface which connects to that particular host.

[LAB]

TopologyPicture 3. Topology

First, make the topology in your packet tracer or you can download the file include Cisco Packet Tracer installer, here the download link.

Download – [LAB]Configuring RIPng CISCO + Cisco Packet Tracer 6.01 for Windows

Second, assign the IP address in each interface based on the routing table.

routing table RIPngPicture 4. Routing Table

There’s a different command in assigning IPv4 and IPv6. After enter the interface, type “ipv6 address xxxx:xxxx:xxxx::x/xx” to assign IPv6 in the interface.

RIPng Configuration (IP address)Picture 5. IPv6 address command

Afterward, we configure the routing RIPng in the router. One thing that must be remember, RIPng has a “process name”. This process name will be assign in every interface in the router that we want to route. And don’t forget to enter the “ipv6 unicast-routing” in every router, if you don’t do this the routing won’t be work.

RIPng Configuration (Route)Picture 6. Routing RIPng

And the last, enter the “show ipv6 route” in any router to check if RIPng is already in routing table or not.

success

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For study

OSI Model

[This article use Indonesian]

OSI (Open System Interconnection) merupakan sebuah pemodelan yang digunakan untuk menjelaskan cara kerja komputer secara logika. OSI model mempunyai 7 layer yaitu Physical, Data Link, Network, Transport, Session, Presentation, dan Application. Masing-masing layer mempunyai fungsi dan perangkat yang berbeda di dalam suatu jaringan.

osi_model

  • Layer 1 – Physical Layer
    Berfungsi untuk mendefinisikan media transmisi jaringan, metode pensinyalan, sinkronisasi bit, arsitektur jaringan (seperti halnya Ethernet atau Token Ring), topologi jaringan dan pengabelan. Selain itu, level ini juga mendefinisikan bagaimana Network Interface Card (NIC) dapat berinteraksi dengan media kabel atau radio.
  • Layer 2 – Data Link Layer
    Berfungsi untuk menentukan bagaimana bit-bit data dikelompokkan menjadi format yang disebut sebagai frame. Selain itu, pada level ini terjadi koreksi kesalahan, flow control, pengalamatan perangkat keras (seperti halnya Media Access Control Address (MAC Address)), dan menetukan bagaimana perangkat-perangkat jaringan seperti hubbridge,repeater, dan switch layer 2 beroperasi. Pada layer Data Link terdapat 2 sublayer, yaitu lapisan Logical Link Control (LLC) dan lapisan Media Access Control (MAC).
  • Layer 3 – Network Layer
    Berfungsi untuk mendefinisikan alamat-alamat IP, membuat header untuk paket-paket, dan kemudian melakukan routing melalui internetworking dengan menggunakan router dan switch layer-3.
  • Layer 4 – Transport Layer
    Berfungsi untuk memecah data ke dalam paket-paket data serta memberikan nomor urut ke paket-paket tersebut sehingga dapat disusun kembali pada sisi tujuan setelah diterima. Selain itu, pada level ini juga membuat sebuah tanda bahwa paket diterima dengan sukses (acknowledgement), dan mentransmisikan ulang terhadp paket-paket yang hilang di tengah jalan.
  • Layer 5 – Session Layer
    Berfungsi untuk mendefinisikan bagaimana koneksi dapat dibuat, dipelihara, atau dihancurkan. Selain itu, di level ini juga dilakukan resolusi nama.
  • Layer 6 – Presentation Layer
    Berfungsi untuk mentranslasikan data yang hendak ditransmisikan oleh aplikasi ke dalam format yang dapat ditransmisikan melalui jaringan. Protokol yang berada dalam level ini adalah perangkat lunak redirektor (redirector software), seperti layanan Workstation (dalam Windows NT) dan juga Network shell (semacam Virtual Network Computing (VNC) atau Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP)).
  • Layer 7 – Application Layer
    Berfungsi sebagai antarmuka dengan aplikasi dengan fungsionalitas jaringan, mengatur bagaimana aplikasi dapat mengakses jaringan, dan kemudian membuat pesan-pesan kesalahan. Protokol yang berada dalam lapisan ini adalah HTTP, FTP, SMTP, dan NFS.
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